Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries that carry blood from your heart to other parts of your body. Blood pressure normally rises and falls throughout the day, but it can damage your heart and cause health problems if it stays high for a long time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension.
High Blood Pressure in the United States
- Having high blood pressure puts you at risk for heart disease and stroke, which are leading causes of death in the United States.1
- About 75 million American adults (32%) have high blood pressure—that’s 1 in every 3 adults.3
- About 1 in 3 American adults has prehypertension— blood pressure numbers that are higher than normal—but not yet in the high blood pressure range.3
- Only about half (54%) of people with high blood pressure have their condition under control.2
- High blood pressure was a primary or contributing cause of death for more than 410,000 Americans in 2014—that’s more than 1,100 deaths each day.1
- High blood pressure costs the nation $48.6 billion each year. This total includes the cost of health care services, medications to treat high blood pressure, and missed days of work.1
Rates of High Blood Pressure Vary by Geography
High blood pressure is more common in some areas of the United States than in others. Below is a map showing the self-reported rate of hypertension by state in 2011. However, this likely underreports the true effect of hypertension in each state. About 1 in 5 adults is unaware of having high blood pressure and would not report having it.2
Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure
Having certain medical conditions can increase your chances of developing high blood pressure. These conditions include:
Unhealthy behaviors can also increase your risk for high blood pressure, especially for people who have one of the medical conditions listed above. Unhealthy behaviors include:
- Smoking tobacco.
- Eating foods high in sodium and low in potassium.
- Not getting enough physical activity.
- Being obese.
- Drinking too much alcohol.
Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure usually has no warning signs or symptoms, so many people don’t realize they have it. There’s only one way to know whether you have high blood pressure: Have a doctor or other health professional measure it. Measuring your blood pressure is quick and painless.
What Blood Pressure Numbers Mean
Blood pressure is measured using two numbers. The first number, called systolic blood pressure, represents the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart beats. The second number, called diastolic blood pressure, represents the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart rests between beats. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
The chart below shows normal, at-risk, and high blood pressure levels. A blood pressure less than 120/80 mmHg is normal. A blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or more is too high. People with levels from 120/80 mmHg to 139/89 mmHg have a condition called prehypertension, which means they are at high risk for high blood pressure.
Controlling High Blood Pressure
Keeping your blood pressure levels in a healthy range usually involves taking medications, reducing sodium in the diet, getting daily physical activity, and quitting smoking.
CDC’s Public Health Efforts Related to High Blood Pressure
- State Public Health Actions to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases
- Million Hearts®
Web Sites with More Information About High Blood Pressure
For more information about high blood pressure, visit the following Web sites:
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2013 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released 2015. Data are from the Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2013, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program: http://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd- icd10.html. Accessed on Feb 3, 2015
- Farley TA, Dalal MA, Mostashari F, Frieden TR. Deaths preventable in the U.S. by improvements in the use of clinical preventive services. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38(6):600–9.
- Nwankwo T, Yoon SS, Burt V, Gu Q. Hypertension among adults in the US: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief, No. 133. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2013.